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Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves.


A signal is usually defined as:

In electronics, a signal is an electric current or electromagnetic field used to convey data from one place to another. The simplest form of signal is a direct current (DC) that is switched on and off; this is the principle by which the early telegraph worked. More complex signals consist of an alternating-current (AC) or electromagnetic carrier that contains one or more data streams.

Sound, images and videos are also considered to be signals.

It is not clear if a signal must be a function of time/space; or if it can be of any other parameter.

It is neither clear if the signal is the physical phenomenon (for example, the seismic wave) or the functional representation of the physical phenomenon (the seismogram).

Signal analysis - Signal processing

One of the applications of Mathematical analysis (Calculus in particular) is for Signal processing. When processing signals, such as audio, radio waves, light waves, seismic waves, and even images, Fourier analysis can isolate individual components of a compound waveform, concentrating them for easier detection or removal. A large family of signal processing techniques consists of Fourier-transforming a signal, manipulating the Fourier-transformed data in a simple way, and reversing the transformation.

  • Seismic processing
  • Time-frequency analysis in Seismic processing:
A set of mathematical formulas used to convert a time function, such as a seismic trace, to a function in the frequency domain (Fourier analysis) and back (Fourier synthesis). The Fourier transform is used extensively in signal processing to design filters and remove coherent noise. Many filtering operations are performed in the frequency domain. The Fourier transform has applications in image analysis and in pattern recognition in geological systems.,and%20back%20(Fourier%20synthesis).&text=The%20Fourier%20transform%20is%20used,filters%20and%20remove%20coherent%20noise.

Relativity and the nature of time

Theory of relativity


14 March

Albert Einstein's birth

14 March 1879, Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire - 18 April 1955 (aged 76), Princeton, New Jersey, United States

The history of electricity

Shock and Awe: The Story of Electricity -- Jim Al-Khalili BBC Horizon:

The history of understanding the Atom

  • Ludwig Boltzmann 1844, Vienna, Austrian Empire -- 1906, Tybein, Triest, Austria-Hungary

One of the first to argue that mater is made of atoms.

  • Albert Einstein 1879, Ulm, Germany - 1955 -- Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.

Brownian Motion

Random Force & Brownian Motion - Sixty Symbols:

Detailed explanation of Einstein's article on the Brownian motion:

Brownian Motion is the random movement displayed by microscopic particles suspended in fluids. It was name after the botanist Robert Brown, who in 1827, performed experiments where he observed pollen seeds suspended in water under the microscope. The tiny grains suspended in water make random zigzag motions. This motion never appeared to slow o stop.

in 1905, Einstein developed a mathematical model for brownian motion based on atomos. Einstein explained that the pollen grains were being moved by water molecules around them. Einstein even derived how big atomos should be based on how the brownian particles move.

Einstein's model was the first hard evidence that supported the existence of atoms.

  • Ernest Rutherford 1871, Brightwater, Colony of New Zealand -- 1937, Cambridge, England

In 1909, Rutherford performed an experiment in which This experiment

  • Niels Bohr


  • Quantum Jumps


  • Schrdinger's wave equation


  • Vener Heisenbeg: Uncertainty principle


The history of understanding the Atom

The Existence of Nothing

The big bang theory

El físico teórico Brian Cox explica por qué el Big Bang sí ocurrió. He said, "you cannot claim there wasn't a big bang because you can fucking see it..."