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La revolución cubana



Triunfo de la revolución



Asalto al Cuartel Moncada

La revolución rusa



La Revolución de Octubre



La Revolución de Febrero

Russian tsar nicholas.jpg

The history of understanding the Atom

Theory of relativity


14 March

Albert Einstein's birth

14 March 1879, Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire - 18 April 1955 (aged 76), Princeton, New Jersey, United States

La Independencia de Venezuela



Muerte de Simón Bolívar

Antonio Herrera Toro



Batalla de Carabobo



Firma del Acta de Declaración de Independencia

Martín Tovar y Tovar



Proclamación de independencia



Nacimiento de Simón Bolívar

La Révolution Française



Le coup d'État de Napoléon Bonaparte



L'éxecution de Louis XVI et Marie-Antoinette

Louis XVI et Marie-Antoinette sont exécutés le 21 janvier 1793 (à 38 ans) et le 16 octobre 1793 (à 37 ans) à la Place de la Révolution (antiene Place Louis XV, actual Place de la Concorde)

La tête de Marie-Antoinette à la foule en 1793. (Musée de la Révolution française)



La prise de la Bastille



L'ouverture des États généraux

The history of understanding the mystery of Matter

1754 - 1772

The discoveries of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen

1772 - Daniel Rutherford discovers Nitrogen, Scotland https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Rutherford

1766 - Henry Cavendish discovers Hydrogen, England https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Cavendish

1754 - Joseph Black discovers Carbon Dioxide, Scotland

Joseph Black (16 April 1728 - 6 December 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist, known for his discoveries of magnesium and carbon dioxide.

He found that limestone (calcium carbonate) could be heated or treated with acids to yield a gas he called "fixed air." He observed that the fixed air was denser than air and supported neither flame nor animal life. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Black


Hennig Brand discovers phosphorus, Germany

Hennig Brand (1630 - 1692 or 1710), Hamburg, Germany.

Hennig Brand was a German alchemist. Like other alchemists of the time, Brand searched for the "philosopher's stone", a substance which supposedly transformed base metals (like lead) into gold.

During his searches for developing a method of obtaining gold, around 1669 he heated residues from boiled-down urine on his furnace until the retort was red hot, where all of a sudden glowing fumes filled it and liquid dripped out, bursting into flames. He could catch the liquid in a jar and cover it, where it solidified and continued to give off a pale-green glow. What he collected was phosphorus, which he named from the Greek word for "light-bearing" or "light-bearer." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hennig_Brand

This is how one of the first elements, phosphorus (o el primero no estoy seguro) fue descubierto.

This documentary seems to be nice. It explains how elements were discovered and classified and how the total number of elements was defined. In the second part of the video, the creation of the atomic bomb is explained.

Mahoma y el origen del Islam



Muerte de Mahoma

Yazrib (Arabia), hoy en día Medina, en el Hiyaz (Arabia Saudita)


Origen del Islam

El islam se inició con la predicación de Mahoma en el año 622 en La Meca (en la actual Arabia Saudita). Bajo el liderazgo de Mahoma y sus sucesores, el islam se extendió rápidamente. https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam

Mahoma recibiendo la revelación del ángel Gabriel en una miniatura iraní del siglo xv. https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahoma

Ilustración del siglo xv de una copia de un manuscrito de Al-Biruni que representa a Mahoma predicando El Corán en La Meca. https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahoma



Nacimiento de Mahoma. En Français: Mahomet, également dit Muḥammad ou Mohammed

La Meca, actual Arabia Saudita

Jesús y el origen del Cristianismo


Crucifixión de Jesús

The 17th century painting Christ Crucified by Diego Velázquez, held by the Museo del Prado in Madrid https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crucifixion_of_Jesus


Nacimiento de Jesús

La Natividad de noche (1490), del artista Geertgen tot Sint Jans (Países Bajos, 1465-1495)

Origen del Judaísmo



Historians of the Ancient Near East agree that David probably existed around 1000 BCE, but that there is little that can be said about him as a historical figure. It was initially thought that there was no evidence outside of the Bible concerning David, but the Tel Dan Stele, an inscribed stone erected by a king of Damascus in the late 9th/early 8th centuries BCE to commemorate his victory over two enemy kings, contains the phrase in Hebrew: ביתדוד‎, bytdwd, which most scholars translate as "House of David".

Statue of King David (1609-1612) by Nicolas Cordier in the Borghese Chapel of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, Italy https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David

David by Michelangelo. 1501-1504. Dimensions: 517 cm × 199 cm. Location: Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, Italy https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_(Michelangelo)

Youthful David, triumphantly posed over the head of the slain Goliath. Andrea del Verrocchio's. Bronze statue. 1473 and 1475. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. It is sometimes claimed that Verrocchio modeled the statue after his pupil Leonardo da Vinci. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_(Verrocchio)

David raises the head of Goliath as illustrated by Josephine Pollard (1899) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David



Rabbinical Judaism calculated a lifespan of Moses corresponding to 1391-1271 BCE; Jerome suggested 1592 BCE, and James Ussher suggested 1571 BCE as his birth year. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses

The Finding of Moses, painting by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1904 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses

Moses with the Ten Commandments by Philippe de Champaigne, 1648 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses



En hebreo: אַבְרָהָם, Avraham. En árabe ابراهيم, Ibrāhīm.

Originalmente Abram, fue según la Biblia, el primero de los tres patriarcas del judaísmo. Su historia es contada en todos los textos sagrados de las religiones abrahámicas y juega un papel importante como ejemplo de fe en el judaísmo, cristianismo e islam. https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham

Abraham Serving the Three Angels, by Rembrandt, 1646 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham

Abraham's Journey from Ur to Canaan, by József Molnár, 1850 (Hungarian National Gallery, Budapest) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham

The origin and evolution of Humans

Neanderthal extinction

The Neanderthals became extinct around 40,000 years ago. This date, which is based on research published in Nature in 2014, is much earlier than previous estimates, and it was established through improved radiocarbon dating methods analyzing 40 sites from Spain to Russia..[1] Evidence for continued Neanderthal presence in the Iberian Peninsula at 37,000 years ago was published in 2017.

Hypotheses on the fate of the Neanderthals include violence from encroaching anatomically modern humans,[3] parasites and pathogens, competitive replacement,[4] competitive exclusion, extinction by interbreeding with early modern human populations,[5] natural catastrophes, and failure or inability to adapt to climate change. It is unlikely that any one of these hypotheses is sufficient on its own; rather, multiple factors probably contributed to the demise of an already low population. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal_extinction

The origin of the Homo sapiens

Several early hominins used fire and occupied much of Eurasia. Homo sapiens (sometimes also known as "modern humans") are thought to have diverged in Africa from an earlier hominin around 300,000 years ago, with the earliest fossil evidence of Homo sapiens also appearing around 300,000 years ago in Africa. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human#Rise_of_Homo_sapiens

Documentary about the earliest fossil evidence of Homo sapiens. La datation par thermoluminescence, plus fiable que le carbone 14, fait remonter leur origine à 300 000 ans: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-XUsBUDoB08

The origin of the Neanderthal

Disparu il y a plus de 40 000 ans, l’homme de Neandertal a peuplé pendant quelque 300,000 ans une large partie du continent eurasiatique, de l’Atlantique à la Sibérie. Majoritairement présents dans le nord-ouest de l'Europe actuelle.

The origin and formation of the Universe, the Solar System, and the Earth

The origin and formation of Earth

The big bang

Éste también proporciona extensiva información sobre The Origin of the Elements.

Éste proporciona una explicación más profunda que el video anterior.

Este video proporciona una explicación muy simple del átomo.

The next URL corresponds to a nice Periodic Table of Elements where you can click on the element to get extensive information about the element: https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/index.html

This video referred to some of the arguments that have been used to justify the big bang. At 59:07 an explication of "Why is dark at night" is given. This explanation match the big bang theory.